Parts Of Speech
The word verb is taken from a Latin word “Verbum” which means a “word”.
A word which make an assertion or statement to do something.
- What a person or thing does.
- What is done to a person or thing.
- What a person or thing.
Verbs which shows action. Such as teach, go, play, study, write, pluck etc.
Children go to school.
Verbs that do not show actions. Such as is, are, am, was, will, shall, has, have, had etc.
She is a teacher.
They are girls.
I am a gardener.
Kinds Of Verb
It is the verb which denotes action that passes from subject to the object is called transitive verb.
Shahid kills a snake.
We play football.
It is the verb which denotes action that does not passes over to object it stop with subject is called intransitive verb.
I go, Salma reads, she went.
3.Auxilary Verb/ Helping Verb
It is a verb which loses its original meaning and help the principal verb.
We have gone to Lahore.
Aslam had gone to Peshawar.
The name of the Place, Person, or Thing is called noun.
Place:- Hospital, City, House etc.
Thing:- Chair, Pen, Toys etc.
Person:- Animals, Birds, Human etc.
Kinds Of Nouns
- Common Noun :-
The name of a particular Person, Place, or Thing is called common noun.
Place:- Hospital, City etc.
Thing:- Chair, Table, Book etc.
Person:- Girl, Boy, Woman etc.
- Proper Noun:-
A word or group of words that is the name of a particular person, place, or thing and that usually begins with a capital letter.
Place:- Kulachi, Gomal, Bazar etc.
Thing:- Airplane, Pionopen etc.
Person:-Quaid-e-Azam, Alama Iqbal etc.
- Collective Noun
This kind of noun is the Collection or Number of persons or things.
Crowd, herd, fleet, team, committer and parliament.
- Abstract Noun
This kind of noun denotes a Quality, State or Action.
Quality:- Goodness, Kindness, Whiteness, Hardness, Weakness, Darkness etc.
Action:- Laughter, Theft, Movement, Judgment, Hatred etc.
State:- Childhood, Boyhood, Youth, Slavery, Sleep etc.
- Countable Noun
Countable noun is something you can count.
Apples, Books, Pen, Students, Chairs, Nations, Bags, Soldiers etc.
- Uncountable Noun
An uncountable noun is something you can’t count.
Wine, Sugar, Water, Sand, Petrol etc.
- Noun Gender
The Word “Gender” has been taken from a Latin word “Genus” which means kind.
- Musculine Gender
Man, Dog, Lion, Camel etc.
Note (Masculine Gender is often used for objects remarkable for Strength or Violence)
Summer, Winter, Time, The sun, Death etc.
The sun sheds his beams on poor and rich alike.
- Feminine Gander
Woman, Hen, Bitch, She Camel, Girl, She Goat, Female etc.
Note (The Feminine Gender is often applied to objects remarkable for Beauty, Gentleness, Graceful)
The man, Earth, Spring, Justice, nature, Liberty, Peace, Hope, Mercy, Charity etc.
The moon has hidden her face behind a cloud.
- Common Gender
Parents, Child, Friend, Pupil, Servant, Person, Orphan, Baby, Monarch, Neighbor, Infant.
- Neutor Gender
A noun that denotes neither male nor female sex is called Neutor Gender.
Pen, Chair, Tree, Register, Book, Shoes, Door, Table, Watch etc.
Note (Objects which are personified as male or females are Nouns of the relative kind)
The word Adjective came from Greek word Adjectius, which means “add” to
A word adds to the meaning of a noun or pronoun is called adjective.
He is good boy
Kinds OF Adjective
1.Adjective Of Quality
That types of adjective which shows the quality of noun or pronoun is called adjective of quality.
The garden is beautiful.
The cricket was played brilliantly by him.
2.Adjective Of Quantity
That types of adjective which shoes the quantity of a noun or a pronoun is called adjective of quantity.
She ate the whole apple.
I ate some rice.
He has little knowledge.
3.Adjective Of Number
That types of adjective which shows the number of something.
One student came forward to become a leader of this class.
Two children make a perfect family.
Four subjects of Management Studies are very difficult.
The adjective of numbers are three types
(1).Definite Number Adjective
That type of adjective that has exact number is called definite number adjective.
A cricket team has eleven players.
(2). Indefinite Number Adjective
That type of adjective which does not exact number is called indefinite number adjective.
There are many boys in the school.
(3).Distributive Number Adjective
That type of adjective which shows of things is called distributive number adjective.
There are ten students in engineering class and fifty in medical class.
That type of adjective which shows the mutual relationship of things is called demonstrative adjective.
These shoes fit me very well. (These)
Those shoes are too expensive. (Those)
This is the best day of my life. (This)
That dog is so adorable. (That)
The adjectives which are used to lay stress on the proceeding noun are called as the emphasizing adjectives.
I saw the killer with my own eyes.
This was the very book that I wanted.
The adjectives which are used to indicate a strong emotion regarding the proceeding noun are called as the exclamatory adjectives. Usually the word ‘what’ is used for this purpose.
What a blessing!
What an idea!
The word which modifies a verb adjective or another adverb is called simple adverb.
He walks slowly.
This is very sweet mango.
He walks quite slowly.
Kinds Of Adverb
1.Adverb Of Time
That adverb which tells us about “When” is called adverb of time.
He returned yesterday.
I get up early in the morning.
2.Adverb Of Frequency
That adverb which tells us about “how much” is called adverb of frequency.
He wrote a letter twice.
We go to school regularly.
They played a match with the same team many times.
3.Adverb Of Place
That adverb which tells us about “where” is called adverb of place.
Let you come in.
He stands next to me.
4.Adverb Of Manner
That adverb which tells us about “in what manner” is called adverb of manner.
He writes clearly.
He laughs lovely.
5.Adverb Of Degree
That adverb which tells us about “to what extent” or “in which degree” is called adverb of degree.
He is too late.
I am so happy.
6.Adverb Of Affirmation
That adverb which tells us about “confirmation” is called adverb of affirmation.
Surely, he will join us.
The two was completely filled.
Adverbs which are used for asking questions are called interrogative adverbs.
Where do you live?
When will you visit again Singapore?
Why have you not fared well in your recent business enterprises?
Where did you get this beautiful dress?
That adverb which tells us about antecedent is called relative adverb.
That’s the restaurant where we met for the first time.
That picture was taken in the park at which I used to play.
I remember the day when we first met.
There was a very hot summer the year in which he was born.
Tell me the reason for which you came home late.
Pronoun is a word which is used instead of a noun.
Aslam goes to school.
Kinds Of Pronoun
- Personal Pronoun
A pronoun in a sentence or phrase that refers to a specific person or object.
Personal pronouns are three cases.
Cases Of Pronoun
|Nominative Case||Possessive Case||Objective||1st Person|
|I, We||My, Mine, Our, Our’s||Me,Us||I, We|
|You||Your, Your’s||You||2nd Person
|He, She, It, They||His, Her, Its, Thiers, Their’s||Him, Her, It, Them||3rd PersonHe, She, It, They|
Personal Pronoun is directly referring to the person.
I, We, You, Your’s, Your, He, She, It, its, His, Her, Him, It, Our, Our’s, Us, They, Their, Theirs, My, Mine, Me, Them.
- Reflexive Pronoun
This kind of pronoun is made by adding self or selves to other Personal Pronoun.
My Self, Him Self, Our Selves, Them Selves, It Selves, Your Self etc
Use In Sentence
He will hurt himself.
We shall enjoy ourselves.
I shall play myself.
They will write themselves.
You will solve the sum yourself.
- 3. Demonstrative Pronoun
A Pronoun used to point out an object.
This, That, These, Those,
This is a book.
That is a tractor.
These are students.
Those are books.
- Indefinite Pronoun
A Pronoun that refers to a person or thing.
Person Or Persons.
Thing Or Things.
One, Some, Somebody, Anybody, Many, A Few, Anyone.
Use In Sentence
- One should do one’s duty.
- Some are born great.
- Nobody attended the meeting.
- A few boys are playing.
- Many lost luggage in the journey.
- Someone stolen my watch.
- Relative Pronoun
A Pronoun that does the work of a conjunction.
Who, Whose, Which, Whom, That etc.
Use In Sentence
- I met the teacher and he is my relative.
- This boy whom I saw was knocking at the door.
- The woman whose purse has been stolen is weeping.
- The moment which lost is lost forever.
- All that glitter is not gold.
The kind of pronoun is used in asking a question.
Who are you?
Why are you late?
- Distributive Pronoun
A Pronoun that refers to a person or persons, thing or things. One at a time.
Each, Either, Neither.
- Each of us won a prize.
- Neither of them is honest.
- Either of them is a lair.
It is the word that is placed before a noun or a pronoun to show the thing or place denoted by it in relation to something else is called preposition.
A word which tells us the relation between two things or places is called preposition.
In, off, at, to, with etc
The book is on the table.
Types Of Preposition
Simple Prepositions are “short” or “little” words that express relationships including those of space, time, and degree.
At, by, for, from, in, into, of, off, on, out, over, till, to, up, upon, with, under, down
My son is sitting at the table, doing their homework
There’s someone at the front door: I heard the bell ring.
Preposition formed by adding prefix (a, be) to a noun or an adjective is called compound preposition.
About, above, across, below, beside, beneath etc
According to his mother, he often talked in his sleep.
Her face was perfect aside from that one hairy mole.
The bucks fought hard and it’s all because of a doe.
The detective didn’t know he was sitting next to a wanted man.
Group of word with a preposition is called phrase preposition.
In accordance with, in spite of, across through, peep through, in care of.
The book with the tattered cover has been read many times.
All the passengers aboard the runaway train were frightened.
The present inside the big box is mine.
Our boss put out a memo regarding the new rule.
Went about the world
Ran across the road
Leaned against a wall
Quarreled among themselves
At death’s door
Sit on bench
Stood before the door
Stood behind the curtain
Lies below the surface
Sat beside me
Stand by me
Rain comes from cloud in the sky
Tour round the world
Marched through towns
Put pen to paper
Lay under the table
Climbed up the ladder
Within the house
After his death
At an early stage
For many year
From first April
In the afternoon
Lived under the master
Lasted through the night
Throughout the night
Wait till tomorrow
Ten minutes to twelve
Rise with sun
Within a month
Sell goods at auction
Sent the parcel by post
Was stunned by below
Destroyed by fire
Heard this through a friend
Cut it with a knife
Dying by inches
Fought with courage
Won with ease
Labored for the good of humanity
Died of fever
Place for a picnic
Did it for your good
Suffers from malaria
Concealed it through shame
Shiver with fever
No many on him
The boy with red hairs
After every effort
For one enemy a hundred friend
With all her faults I love her
Charged interest at nine percent
Cloth sold by yard
Taller they you
From what I know of him
I hesitate to trust him
He did it from gratitude
Light emanates from sun
Skills come from practice
It is a word that joins two words or sentences is called conjunction.
Ali and Aslam are friends.
He has to work hard otherwise he would fail
Types Of Conjunction
That conjunction which is used in pairs is called correlative conjunction
- Either …or…
- Either John or George must have done this mischief.
- Neither peter nor Andrew has passed the test.
- For seeking admission in a US university, you should sit for both GRE and TOEFL.
- I do not know whether my father is arriving by the 8o’clock flight or 9o’clock flight.
- Not only…but also…
- She not only wrote the screenplay for the movie but also acted a role in it.
- I see only such movies as have good songs.
- Such was the weather the whole of today that I decided to stay indoors.
- If you are as intelligent as your father, it will not be difficult for you to run your family business.
- As you sow, so you reap.
- I had hardly sat down for dinner, when the phone rang.
- I left home early so that I would not miss the 7o’clock train to the city.
- Clinton had scarcely reached the platform when the train started moving.
- The meeting will take place between 5 p.m and 6 p.m.
- As many as
- There are as many chairs as there are students.
That conjunction which are used in the form of compound expressions
In order that:- He comes to school in order that to learn something.
Provided that:- I will teach you provided that you too give me feedback.
The interjection is a part of speech which is more commonly used in informal language than in formal writing or speech. Basically, the function of interjections is to express emotions or sudden bursts of feelings. They can express a wide variety of emotions such as: excitement, joy, surprise, or disgust.
What are the Structures and Importance of Interjections?
Interjections can come in the form of a single word, a phrase, or even a short clause. Aside from that, they are usually (but not always) placed at the beginning of a sentence. The importance of interjections lies in the fact that they can convey feelings that may sometimes be neglected in the sentence.
“That book is about vampires.”
One person can write it as:
That book is about vampires.
That book is about vampires.
But then again, another person might use an interjection to show the same feeling of disgust (as in sentence number 2):
Eww! That book is about vampires.
So you see from the sentence above that the word “eww” conveys the emotional response to what is said in the sentence. It can act as a replacement for emoticons and are more appropriate to use in writing, especially in character dialogues.
Kinds of Interjections
Adjectives that are used as interjections.
Nice! You got a Monster Kill in your first game!
Sweet! I got a PS4 for my birthday!
Good! Now we can move on to the next lesson.
The italicized words in the sample sentences above are just some of the adjectives that can be used as interjections.
Nouns or noun phrases that are used as interjections.
Congratulations, you won the match.
Hello! How are you?
Holy cow! I forgot my keys!
The italicized parts of the sentences above are just some of the nouns that can be used as interjections.
Short clauses that are used as interjections.
Shawie is our chemistry teacher. Oh, the horror!
The short clause that is italicized in the example above functions as an interjection.
Some interjections are sounds.
Ugh! I’m never doing that again!
Whew! That was really close!
Uh-oh! Dude, I think we’re in serious trouble.
How do You Punctuate Interjections?
Since interjections convey different kinds of emotions, there are also different ways to punctuate them.
The exclamation point is the most commonly used punctuation mark for interjections. Obviously, it is used to communicate strong emotions such as surprise, excitement, or anger.
I just replaced your sugar with salt. Bazinga!
Hooray! I got the job!
Hey! Stop messing with me!
Ouch! That must’ve hurt really bad!
Oh! They’re here!
Boo-yah! This is the bomb!
Are you still going to eat that? Yuck!
Yahoo! I got my Christmas bonus!
Eek! There’s a flying cockroach!
Period or comma
For weaker emotions, a period or a comma will suffice.
What’s the answer to number 24?
Me, who cares?
Ah, that feels great!
Oh well, what’s done is done.
Well, what did your mom say?
Um… I don’t think so.
Hmm, your house always smells like freshly brewed coffee.
If you intend to use interjections to express uncertainty or disbelief, it is more appropriate to use a question mark.
Huh? What did you just say?
What? You still haven’t submitted your project?
Oh, really? I never thought he’s that kind of guy.
What are Other Examples of Interjections?
Prepared By JIMMY RAPPER
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